Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Sulfone Polymers

Sulfones are amorphous engineering thermoplastics noted for high heat-deflection temperatures and outstanding dimensional stability. These strong, rigid
polymers are the only thermoplastics that remain transparent at service temperatures as high as 400°F.
Natural color of the sulfone resins is transparent light amber. Continuous use in air or in steam at rated temperature does not cloud, craze, or otherwise destroy their transparency. These resins are also available in opaque colors and in mineral-filled and glass -reinforced
compounds, which provide improved strength, stiffness, and thermal stability.
Sulfonation with sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, and acetyl sulfate easily provides proton -
conducting polymer electrolytes, but these sulfonated polymer electrolytes decompose on heating above 200
deg cel because of desulfonation.

Industrial Estate

An industrial park (also known as industrial estate, trading estate) is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development.The term "industrial estate" is often used interchangeably with industrial district, industrial park, industrial zone, special economic zone, eco-zone etc.
Industrial Estates have led to the development of large urban regions especially in the States of Gujarat and Maharashtra, wherein large-scale city/town development has taken place. Bharuch, Vapi and Valsad in Gujarat and Nashik and Nagpur in Maharashtra are examples of such developments

Monday, February 27, 2012


Luminol (C8H7N3O2) is a versatile chemical that exhibits chemiluminescence, with a striking blue glow, when mixed with an appropriate oxidizing agent.

It is a white to slightly yellow crystalline solid that is soluble in most polar organic solvents, but insoluble in water.

Luminol is used by forensic investigators to detect trace amounts of blood left at crime scenes as it reacts with iron found in hemoglobin.

It is used by biologists in cellular assays for the detection of copper, iron, and cyanides, in addition to the detection of specific proteins by Western Blot.

Friday, February 24, 2012

Gold Refining Video

Gold Refining Video
Here is an interesting tutorial on Gold Refining
It is the Project of the Day !

Thursday, February 23, 2012


Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora.

Developed at DuPont in 1965, this high strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components.

Currently, Kevlar has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to body armor because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio; by this measure it is 5 times stronger than steel on an equal weight basis.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012


Polyaniline (PANI) is a conducting polymer of the semi-flexible rod polymer family. Polyaniline is among a family of conductive polymers, and has properties similar to some metals. It was discovered as “aniline black” in an organic form as part of melanin, a type of organic polymer in 1934.

Melanin does many things in nature, including protecting the skin by regulating UV exposure through a polyaniline interaction. In a natural form, polyaniline is usually found folded with other polymers.

In the late 1990s it became evident that polyaniline was a flexible and highly useful polymer, and could be used in applications ranging from intelligent windows to computer chips.

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Styrene Butadiene Latexes

  • Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer consisting of styrene and butadiene. It has good abrasion resistance and good aging stability when protected by additives, and is widely used in car tires, where it may be blended with natural rubber.
  • It was originally developed prior to World War II in Germany,[1]. Industrial manufacture began during World War 2, where it was used extensively by the USA to replace the Far-East natural rubber supplies captured by the Japanese.
  • Styrene butadiene latexes usually have a resin content of about 50%. The styrene/butadiene ratio varies from 54:46 to 80:20.

Gold hallmarking fraud: Jewellers 'liable'

Gold hallmarking fraud: Jewellers 'liable'
Save the consumers....good?

Thursday, February 09, 2012


  • Pentetic acid or diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a polyamino carboxylic acid consisting of a diethylenetriamine backbone with five carboxymethyl groups.
  • The molecule can be viewed as an expanded version of EDTA and it is used similarly.
  • DTPA is a calcium (Ca-DTPA) or zinc salt (Zn-DTPA) that is used to perform medical
  • imaging of the brain, kidneys, and lungs.
  • It is can also be used to remove certain radioactive materials, except uranium or neptunium, from a person’s body.

Monday, February 06, 2012

Diagnostic center

Diagnostic imaging is a process in which doctors use medical images to determine the source of medical problems in patients.
The future of diagnostic imaging looks to further the trend of finding the problem in a patient early, before any insurmountable damage has been done. However, future methods look to take this a step further.
The total Indian healthcare sector is today 34 billion USD and it is projected to grow to nearly 40 billion by 2012. The diagnostic and pathology market is around two percent of the total market. Indian diagnostic market has been growing fast, at 15-20 percent growth rate but there are lots of development needs.

Chlorinated Methanes

The chlorination of methane proceeds through a radical mechanism. Like most radical mechanisms there are three steps: initiation, propagation and termination.

The chlorination of methane does not necessarily stop after one chlorination. It may actually be very hard to get a monosubstituted chloromethane. Instead di-, tri- and even tetra-chloromethanes are formed.

Demand for methylene chloride on the export market had been steadily increasing since January, producers said, which had pushed prices to levels some had not previously expected.

Globally, about 90-95% of the chloroform is used as a precursor for HCFC-22, which is used in refrigerants and fluoropolymers such as polytetrafluoro-ethylene (PTFE).

Horse farm

A stud farm or stud in animal husbandry, is an establishment for selective breeding of livestock. The word "stud" comes from the Old English stod meaning "herd of horses, place where horses are kept for breeding". The Carthusian monks are famous for their role in breeding the Andalusian horse in Spain, while monasteries in Bavaria were responsible for the original Rottaler horse.


Gilsonite is a naturally occurring glossy black asphaltic, solid hydrocarbon resin with a low specific gravity. It  occurs in its very pure natural state in a mineral called Uintaite.
Gilsonite, a unique natural hydrocarbon high in asphaltenes and nitrogen compounds, is a granular solid that is fully compatible  with bitumen. It can be melted into hot bitumen, added during the hot-mix manufacturing process, or blended into a preservation treatment.
Gilsonite is also used in protective coverings, anticorrosive paints, roofing compounds, dark rotogravure printing inks, carbon electrodes for the nuclear industry, varnishes, and as a reducing agent in slurry explosives

SBI waives service fee on SME loans

SBI waives service fee on SME loans
Thank you..SBI

Friday, February 03, 2012

Activated Alumina

Activated alumina is manufactured from aluminium hydroxide by dehydroxylating it in a way that produces a highly porous material.

Activated alumina is used for a wide range of adsorbent and catalyst applications including the adsorption of catalysts in polyethylene production, in hydrogen peroxide production, as a selective adsorbent for many chemicals including arsenic, fluoride, in sulfur removal from gas streams (Claus Catalyst process).

Activated alumina is also widely used to remove fluoride from drinking water. In the US, there are widespread programs to fluoridate drinking water.

Activated alumina technology can be expensive, and many of its costs are associated with disposal of the contaminated water that is created when alumina is purged of contaminants and “reset” for future use.

Thursday, February 02, 2012

Organic carbonates


In organic chemistry a carbonate can also refer to a functional group within a larger molecule that contains a carbon atom bound to three oxygen atoms, one of which is double bonded. These
compounds are also known as organocarbonates or carbonate esters, and have the general formula ROCOOR′, or RR′CO3.

Wednesday, February 01, 2012


Dimercaprol is a chelating (KEE-late-ing) agent. A chelating agent is capable of removing a heavy metal, such as lead or mercury, from the blood.

Dimercaprol is used to treat poisoning with arsenic, gold, or mercury. It is also used together with another medication called edetate disodium (EDTA) to treat lead poisoning.

Dimercaprol is prepared by the bromination of allyl alcohol to glycerol di-bromine-hydrine followed by reaction with sodium hydrosulfide under pressure. It can also be prepared by hydrogenizing hydroxide propylene trisulfide .

Aluminum chemicals

Aluminium or aluminum (American English) is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface. Aluminium metal is too reactive chemically to occur natively. Today, aluminum and aluminum alloys are used in a wide variety of products: cans, foils and kitchen utensils, as well as parts of airplanes, rockets and other items that require a strong, light material.